Global Warming: What you need to know, how to mitigate

Climate change is a pressing global issue that affects every corner of our planet. It refers to long-term shifts in weather patterns, including rising temperatures, altered precipitation, and extreme events. In this article, we’ll delve into the causes of climate change, with a focus on global warming, its impact on Africa, and essential strategies to mitigate its effects.

Coal, oil, and gas are major contributors to climate change. They account for over 75% of global greenhouse gas emissions and nearly 90% of carbon dioxide emissions. As these emissions accumulate in the atmosphere, they create a greenhouse effect, trapping heat from the sun. This leads to global warming and subsequent climate change.

Activities contributing to climate change and global warming

  • Deforestation reduces the Earth’s capacity to absorb carbon dioxide. Trees act as natural carbon sinks, but when forests are cleared for agriculture or urbanization, this vital function is compromised.
  • Agricultural practices, such as rice cultivation and livestock farming, release methane; a potent greenhouse gas. Nitrous oxide emissions from fertilizers also contribute to climate change.
  • Industrial activities, including cement production and chemical manufacturing, release greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.

Global Warming and Africa

Africa is warming faster than the global average. Recent decades have seen rising temperatures comparable to other continents. The latest predictions indicate continued warming and decreasing rainfall, especially over North and Southern Africa. Currently, countries like Uganda and Sudan are facing high temperatures beyond 30 degrees Celsius

Impact of global warming

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  • Human Health: Climate change poses risks to health through heat-related illnesses, increased disease transmission (e.g., malaria), and malnutrition due to crop failures.
  • Food Security: Changing weather patterns affect agriculture, leading to food shortages and malnutrition.
  • Water Scarcity: Decreased rainfall and droughts threaten water availability. This also causes the burden associated with Water diseases.
  • Economic Disruption: Extreme weather events disrupt economies, affecting livelihoods and infrastructure.

Immediate Measures for High Temperatures

  • Heatwave Preparedness: Implement early warning systems and educate communities about heatwave risks.
  • Cooling Centers: Establish cooling centers in urban areas to provide relief during extreme heat.
  • Hydration and Shade: Promote hydration and access to shaded areas.
  • Urban Planning: Design cities with green spaces and heat-resistant infrastructure.

Strategies for Mitigation

  • Transition to renewable energy sources (solar, wind, hydro) to reduce reliance on fossil fuels. Invest in clean energy infrastructure.
  • Plant trees to restore forests and enhance carbon sequestration.
  • Promote sustainable land management.
  • Raise awareness about climate change and its impact.
  • Advocate for policy changes and international cooperation.


Addressing climate change requires collective action. Africa, as a vulnerable continent, must prioritize adaptation and mitigation strategies. By embracing sustainable practices and fostering resilience, we can safeguard our planet and the well-being of future generations.

Remember: Every action counts. Let’s protect our Earth for a better tomorrow.

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Wejuli Junior Mike is a researcher at Makerere School of Public Health (MakSPH)

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